What is discipline? Discipline is guidance and teaching a child self control. If you view children's misbehavior as a mistake in judgment, it may be easier to think of ways to teach a more acceptable alternative. By setting clear limits and disciplining in a positive, loving way, you can help a child begin to learn how to control her own behavior and how to set her own limits.
Discipline is not punishment. Punishment may stop a particular behavior for a moment but ultimately interferes with the long-term goal of promoting a child's self control. Punishment comes in many forms: it can be physical (spanking), verbal (calling names) or emotional (shaming). It is criticizing, discouraging, creating obstacles and barriers, blaming, using sarcastic or cruel humor. All punishment is harmful to a child's self-esteem. An adult might occasionally lose control and do any of these things. But doing any of them more than once in a long while means that a negative approach to discipline has become a habit and urgently needs to be altered before a child's lowered self-esteem becomes part of her personality. The goal of positive discipline is to teach self-control, to help a child learn to take responsibility for his or her behavior, and maintain a warm relationship with the caregiver.
Understanding child development
It is crucial to understand what is developmentally appropriate behavior for a child before taking disciplinary action. For example, the job of a toddler is to taste, touch, smell, squeeze, tote, poke, pour, sort, explore, and test. At times toddlers are greedy, at times grandiose. They do not share well; they need time to experience ownership before they are expected to share. They need to assert themselves and they need to separate to a degree from their parents, to individuate. One way they do this is to say no and not to do what is asked. If adults understand children in this age range, they will create circumstances and develop attitudes that permit and promote development - through guidance not punishment. It's a team effort, not toddler vs. adult.
If routines are clear, there will be less conflict. Keep household rules few, firm and fair. Then, let the children know exactly what you expect. Instead of general orders like, "Be good,", say instead, "I need quiet while I am driving. Please use a quiet voice."
Respect a child's emotions. Teach her that its okay to have negative emotions like anger and help her learn how to channel those emotions productively.
"You want to play with the truck, but Jamie is using it right now."
"You want me to stay with you, but right now I need to go and clean up the play room"
Then, offer a solution:
"You will be able to play with the truck again in 1 minute."
"I will be back in one minute or you can come with me to help."
Always follow what the child CAN'T do with what the child CAN do instead "We don't hit the cat. Pat her gently on her back like this."
"Puzzle pieces are not for throwing. Lets put them in their place together." This set firm limits, yet helps the child know what to do and that you are there to teach him.