by Kevin B. Doyle
The CDC estimates that 1 in 88 children in the United States have been identified with autism spectrum disorder by the age of 8.
Since 2007, pediatricians have been told to screen 18-month-old children for autism. Recent research indicates that brain scans can detect brain changes in at-risk babies. Infant brains are quite malleable. With early diagnosis and intervention, the child is given the best chance at benefiting from interactive therapies.
What tools are available now since pediatricians can identify children with autism earlier? Can these same methods help detect autism in our toddlers and preschoolers, too?
One therapy is the "Early Start Denver Model." It was designed to address the needs of toddlers as young as 12-months-old. ESDM blends the rigor of applied behavioral analysis with play-based routines that focused on building a relationship with the child. If you were to look in on a session, you'd see therapists or parents sitting on the floor playing with a child.
It's not just any play session, however. Many learning opportunities are embedded in the carefully structured teaching and the relationship-based approach. If your toddler has been diagnosed with autism, it could be worth your while to discuss this opportunity with your pediatrician and find an early intervention program. While you wait to get your answers, you can try these four key activities outlined below.
Expressing themselves and understanding spoken language can be a problem for children with autism. Your toddler might not talk yet or might say words and phrases but not use those words to ask for something or talk with you.
Speak to your child directly and deliberately. Keep sentences short and eliminate extra words. Lean into his or her field of vision. Touch your child to indicate that you're talking to him or her. Some children respond better to speech reinforced with gestures. Include your child in interactive games and fun play time.
Put a bucket of balls on the floor. When your child picks up a ball, you pick one up, too. Then empty the bucket. Throw your ball in the bucket and say "ball." When your toddler throws, say "ball" again. Pick up a ball and ask, "Do you want another ball? Say, "ball," and hand it over.
Each time your child says something, give him or her the ball. You're playing a game of "throwing balls in a bucket." You might throw to each other, bounce the ball or roll it. You're using your child's interest to focus on saying the word and working on throwing skills. While this is going on you're also practicing social play and taking turns. If your child isn't interested in a ball, play with whatever brings on the smiles and engagement.
By the time children hit the year mark, a typically developing child will do the waving gesture. They make eye contact regularly and enjoy your company (generally speaking). A child with autism on the other hand, might be very introverted and enjoy playing alone. You might notice a lack of eye contact and when you get close and try to engage, your child could tell you, in his or her own way, that you're invading his or her space.
Toddlers and preschoolers who learn to imitate adult actions seem to have a broader range of social skills. Look for opportunities to share your expertise. Model how to ask for things and how to point and name items.
Now is the time to use visual aids. At snack time, point to a picture of an apple and model the response, "I want an apple" or for a younger toddler, "want apple." Repeat a few times, pausing longer each time before your verbal prompt, encouraging your child to mimic your words.
Not every child with autism has problems with motor skills, but it is common that gross motor skills or fine motors skills can lag. A toddler with autism might struggle with manipulating small objects or might have problems with balance and coordination.