by Michele Brown, OB/GYN
I get so many questions about sex from my blushing, pregnant patients that I'm addressing this slightly dicey, usually private topic and its surrounding myths.
Sex is normal, and honestly, without it, none of us would be here reading. So let's dig into sex during pregnancy, and see what's true, myth, recommended, normal, or requires further thought.
Read this and then show it to your partner. Better yet, read it together, feel sexy, stay close, and be excited about all your body's incredible changes.
Most women are less sexually active in pregnancy -- reports show a decrease in desire, frequency and satisfaction. during the third trimester 90% report less intercourse, especially those having their first babies.
However, women don't report a total loss of sexual desire and satisfaction or complete avoidance of intercourse. Relationship satisfaction improves in couples excitedly anticipating and preparing for the birth of their baby. With the decline in sexual desire, some women feel an increase and desire for nonsexual physical contact.
Changes in social roles (mother role versus work role), marital satisfaction, fatigue, mood, physical changes associated with childbirth, and breastfeeding can all contribute to the decrease in sexual activity during pregnancy and after birth.
Transition from pre-baby lifestyle, inability to pursue personal interests, inactive social life, responsibility for a child's sleeping and feeding schedule all contribute to the stress and fatigue. For Thirty-five to 40% postpartum women, the dramatic drop in hormones causes some measure of depression. Although it may not qualify as criteria for a diagnosis of postpartum depression, it may contribute to the decrease interest in sexual activity.
Physical changes such as episiotomy discomfort, perineal pain, and hormones (which can cause a thinning of the vaginal wall mucosa) can cause physical discomfort. Breastfeeding hormones cause decreases in vaginal lubrication making sex less comfortable. Also, breastfeeding has been found to provide sexual fulfillment for some women leading to decreased levels of sexual activity with their spouses.
The transition to parenthood often redefines the roles between a married couple with added and changing responsibilities. Satisfaction in the relationship directly corresponds to sexual activity -- those with a higher relationship satisfaction have more sex.
Can intercourse during pregnancy result in miscarriage? For the normal low-risk pregnancy, sexual activity doesn't cause an increase in the miscarriage rate. The majority of first trimester losses are related to genetic defects, not to any trauma related to intercourse. Your uterus is located deep in the pelvis and your baby is amply protected by amniotic fluid.
Uterine anatomic anomalies, painful fibroids, cervical incompetence, placenta previa (placenta lying across the cervical opening) or abruption (placental separation) may be reasons for an obstetrician to advise patients to refrain from coitus. Other reasons for avoidance may be a possibility of transmission of a sexually transmitted disease such as syphilis, herpes, listeria, condyloma, or mycoplasma in pregnant women who have new or multiple partners.
Can oral sex cause air to get into the uterus and cause an air embolism?
Maternal deaths from air embolism have occurred following forceful blowing of air into the vagina during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Vaginal douching during pregnancy is also contraindicated due to the risk of air embolism.
Is there an association between coitus and premature delivery, premature rupture of the membranes, or uterine infections (chorioamnionitis)? There is generally believed to be no association between coital frequency, premature labor, and premature rupture of membranes. However, coitus can cause maternal and neonatal infections secondary to sexually transmitted diseases.