Appeal to bring back Mexican-American studies overruled

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Appeal to bring back Mexican-American studies overruled

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/06/mexican-american-studies-banned-_n_1324755.html

The federal U.S. District Court judge in Tucson, judge David Bury, who denied the request to reinstate the MAS program, said that the elimination of the courses didn't intentionally segregate students, nor did it tip the racial or ethnic balance of students in any TUSD school.

The ruling by Judge Bury was backed by Special Master Willis Hawley, who was in charge of overseeing the development and implementation of TUSD's plan to bring its schools into racial balance.

So do you believe the judge? Do you believe that getting rid of the Mexican-American studies is a good way to desegregate schools and bring unity? Do you think this move to eliminate the MAS program in schools is racist?

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I don't understand what is wrong with the programs. When I first went back to school after leaving my 4 year college, I took some classes at the community college and I took an Irish-American literature class that was just starting up. I'm barely Irish but it was a very interesting class. There was a mix of people in my class and we were all learning something new. It amazes me that people think to not understand or to not learn about a group of people could ever be a good thing.

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Is the MAS just a class or a seperate curriculum?

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"elleon17" wrote:

Is the MAS just a class or a seperate curriculum?

Does it matter?

Here is an article that I think is the most detailed. MAS is a program of study with various core classes in the same way Drama is a program of study and there are various classes that fall under it (Shakespear, Acting I, Acting II, Stage Direction, etc.) You don't ahve to take all of them or any of them. They did away with the entire program.

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Yeah...that is dumb. People feel threatened by it for no reason. It is no different than majoring in women's studies or something like that. I'm not sure what fields call for a major/minor in MAS but all the power to you if that is what you want to do.

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"Jessica1980" wrote:

Yeah...that is dumb. People feel threatened by it for no reason. It is no different than majoring in women's studies or something like that. I'm not sure what fields call for a major/minor in MAS but all the power to you if that is what you want to do.

These are high school courses not college.

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How is Mexican American studies more biased/segregated than the Western Civilization that I took in high school? I think doing away with it is silly.

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"boilermaker" wrote:

How is Mexican American studies more biased/segregated than the Western Civilization that I took in high school? I think doing away with it is silly.

Still doesn't change that I think it is stupid and brought on by prejudice. I took several elective courses in high school as well. Many historical and literature classes in which we talked about things that weren't pertaining to a white anglo-saxon culture.

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"culturedmom" wrote:

Does it matter?

Here is an article that I think is the most detailed. MAS is a program of study with various core classes in the same way Drama is a program of study and there are various classes that fall under it (Shakespear, Acting I, Acting II, Stage Direction, etc.) You don't ahve to take all of them or any of them. They did away with the entire program.

To me it does.

I don't want to judge when I am not sure of what this really is. If it is a program that segegrates different ethnicities while teaching a similar curriculum, I am against it.

I am not for segregation in any form.

If it is a selection of classes, like a Mexican American studies course, I'm fine with it. I took tons of those in college.

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"boilermaker" wrote:

How is Mexican American studies more biased/segregated than the Western Civilization that I took in high school? I think doing away with it is silly.

I agree. I won't be so quick to call it racist, but I admit to not understanding it unless it was part of larger cuts that simply had to be made. I dont buy the desegregation argument, really.

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"boilermaker" wrote:

How is Mexican American studies more biased/segregated than the Western Civilization that I took in high school? I think doing away with it is silly.

Yeah culturally speaking, my high school history, arts, literary education was so highly focused on such a narrow subset of the whole (United States/European) its ridiculous.

Kind of funny to think people would think adding MORE diverse choices is a bad thing.

I dare say that the classic public high school education is in more danger of violating their HB 2281 than one with more choices, just based on that bulleted list in the article.

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If you go through the judges ruling, there were instances of things that were being taught that were definitely biased. Here is a transcript if you want to read it.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/76617576/ALJ-ruling-against-Ethnic-Studies-in-TUSD

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I don't mean to be lazy but if you already read that whole thing and saw specific incidents could you tell tell us what they were? Or what pages in particular we could check out to narrow it down?

I can read some of it, but i have to admit i don't really feel like reading all of it.

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Here are a few:

"KimPossible" wrote:

I don't mean to be lazy but if you already read that whole thing and saw specific incidents could you tell tell us what they were? Or what pages in particular we could check out to narrow it down?

I can read some of it, but i have to admit i don't really feel like reading all of it.

However, based on what was produced, the auditors found that three out of the nine total MAS curriculum units “contain an overabundance of controversial commentary inclusive of political tones of personal activism and bias.”

Testimonial evidence presented at the hearing, in conjunction with excerpts fromtexts, curriculum, assessments, and student work, demonstrates that MAS classes cause students to develop a sense of racial resentment toward the “white oppressor” or“dominant” group. The philosophy of “us against them” is a persistent theme that exists within the MAS program.

MAS Director Arce and Dr. Romero state in the article that the rationale behind this “racismized” pedagogy is premised upon the belief that “the United States of America was founded and constructed on racism” and that “from its inception, America and Americans have operated on the belief that whites were superior to all other races.” (Ex. 5 at ADE 000926). They urge that the role of the “critical educator” at the District is not merely to teach students, but to use the classroom to encourage activism.

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Here's some more

...the dominant group is incapable of critical reflection or redemptive remembering, both of which are required for the creation of a truly egalitarian structure. Because of their linear thought and messianic self image, however, the dominant group is unable to reflect upon its actions; therefore all it sees is the American structure it created.

Dr. Stotsky testified what was lacking in the MAS program was a balanced approach, meaning one that offers more than one perspective or view (i.e., that it wasnot biased). Dr. Stotsky opined that the MAS materials she reviewed identified Latinos as the oppressed and ?Whites? as the oppressor, and were designed to arouse emotion in the Latinos.110.

Dr. Stotsky testified that based on her review of the materials, she believes atleast some MAS classes violate A.R.S. ? 15-112 by promoting racial resentment, and advocating ethnic solidarity instead of treating students as individuals. She furthertestified that she believes that the MAS classes are designed for students of a particularethnic group.

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However on cross examination Dr. Strotsky admitted to never actually visiting one of the classes or talking/interviewing one of the teachers or students. Someone's opinion is not factual evidence, especailly if that person's opinion isn't even based on first hand knowledge.

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Dr. Romero and Director Arce themselves say:

...the dominant group is incapable of critical reflection or redemptive remembering, both of which are required for the creation of a truly egalitarian structure. Because of their linear thought and messianic self image, however, the dominant group is unable to reflect upon its actions; therefore all it sees is the American structure it created.

So, white people are incapable of critical reflection and redemptive remembering. Not only that, white people think they are gods who think that they are great and are unable to do wrong.

Awesome. Sounds pretty "White people suck" -ish to me.

I actually fully support MAS as well as black studies, women's studies, Irish literature etc. etc. It's all very interesting and worthwhile, but needlessly demonizing a certain group isn't right. What I mean is, I'm a feminist, but that means that I believe in equity between men and women and the need to bring this about, not that men suck and that they are the root of all problems and are unable to critically reflect upon the unequal social structures of the past.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

I don't mean to be lazy but if you already read that whole thing and saw specific incidents could you tell tell us what they were? Or what pages in particular we could check out to narrow it down?

I can read some of it, but i have to admit i don't really feel like reading all of it.

Look at the section called Classroom Materials and Observations of Teachers starting on page 20

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"GloriaInTX" wrote:

If you go through the judges ruling, there were instances of things that were being taught that were definitely biased. Here is a transcript if you want to read it.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/76617576/ALJ-ruling-against-Ethnic-Studies-in-TUSD

I did a little skimming of some of the points being made in that section and i do find it interesting because i wonder if the standard curriculum has been combed over with such scrutiny.

My point being if someone *wanted* to eliminate the standard US and European curriculum that exists in most classrooms now, i think they could easily put together a similar list to what I've seen from quickly viewing the section you pointed to. (But you know...no one with any decision making power *wants* to eliminate that)

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"KimPossible" wrote:

I did a little skimming of some of the points being made in that section and i do find it interesting because i wonder if the standard curriculum has been combed over with such scrutiny.

My point being if someone *wanted* to eliminate the standard US and European curriculum that exists in most classrooms now, i think they could easily put together a similar list to what I've seen from quickly viewing the section you pointed to. (But you know...no one with any decision making power *wants* to eliminate that)

I never studied any curriculum like this. (in the Middle School section)

132. Another poem entitled, "Somos Mas Americanos," states: "I want to remind the racist whites: I didn't cross the border, the border crossed me . . . . We are more America the sons of the Anglo-Saxons. . . . Even though it hurts our neighbor we are more American than all of the White people."

134. The "Building the Bridges Toward Solidarity" unit appears to advocate ethinic solidarity among black and brown people while the white people are excluded from the "bridges toward solidarity" that the students are encouraged to build. See also Ex. 12 at 84, ( excerpt from MAS critical race theory textbook under Questions and Comments- "Would it not be logical for the blacks, Latinos, Asians and Native Americans to unite in one powerful coalition to confront the power system that is oppressing them all?")

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I don't think I"m being clear as to what my point is. My point is, i could put together a set of excerpts and lines from the curriculum of the standard education and make some sort of case against it akin to this. I highly doubt you remember every line from every piece you read in school.

That coupled with the fact that Lana pointed out that the classes were not observed nor the teachers involved in gathering this information, we don't even know how this material is being used.

Let me put it this way, i don't think the existing curriculum in most schools is without its biases or own sets of liberties in interpretation. I think this is being targeted and looked into in a manner that our regular "Non MAS" education anywhere typically doesn't, or at least not in AZ.

That's not to say i would object to cleaning up parts of it that are in clear violation. But i don't think that's possible to tell from what was provided or what was examined.

The mere fact that they want to eliminate it instead of fix it if they see it as bad speaks volumes to me.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

I don't think I"m being clear as to what my point is. My point is, i could put together a set of excerpts and lines from the curriculum of the standard education and make some sort of case against it akin to this. I highly doubt you remember ever line from ever piece you read in school.

That coupled with the fact that Lana pointed out that the classes were not observed nor the teachers involved in gathering this information, we don't even know how this material is being used.

Let me put it this way, i don't think the existing curriculum in most schools is without its biases or own sets of liberties in interpretation. I think this is being targeted and looked into in a manner that our regular "Non MAS" education anywhere typically doesn't, or at least not in AZ.

That's not to say i would object to cleaning up parts of it that are in clear violation. But i don't think that's possible to tell from what was provided or what was examined.

The mere fact that they want to eliminate it instead of fix it if they see it as bad speaks volumes to me.

But they didn't say they had to eliminate it instead of fix it. TUSD was told they had to bring the classes into compliance they didn't state how they had to do it. See #16 on page 35.

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The article in the OP states that the superintendent threatened to withhold 14m in tax money if this program was not terminated. I'm pretty sure that means the school district will get rid of it.

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The article says it was cancelled

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Part of the problem is that the lesson plans and curriculum was not being planned out and approved ahead of time.

28. It is undisputed that from January 1, 2011 through June 15, 2011 the MAS program did not have a comprehensive written curriculum and did not have textbooks or materials that had been approved by the District's governing board.

p 6

To bring the courses into compliance they would have had to do that, and I guess they didn't think it was worth it.

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"GloriaInTX" wrote:

Part of the problem is that the lesson plans and curriculum was not being planned out and approved ahead of time.

p 6

To bring the courses into compliance they would have had to do that, and I guess they didn't think it was worth it.

You make it sound like they were offerred the option and they were like 'Meh...no thanks" The superintendant cancelled the program, they've attempted to get it reinstated...and it was denied.

It doesn't matter what the legal jargon inside there says if thats not how its being implemented.

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They did have a choice ... either revamp the program or kill it.

The Tucson Unified School District board will meet tomorrow to determine what to do about last week’s ruling by an administrative law judge that its Mexican American Studies program violates state law.

It would be wise to do away with the overall Ethnic Studies program and instead come up with some other way to effectively address the problem the program was created to fix in 1999 – the high dropout and failure rate of Latino, African American and Native American students. A problem, by the way, that persists.

The law proscribes education programs tailored for one ethnic group, that promote ethnic solidarity or that create racial resentment. The judge found that the district violates all three prohibitions.

State Superintendent of Public Instruction John Huppenthal has until the end of the month to accept or reject the ruling, but he’s widely expected to accept it since the judge’s ruling was the result of a district appeal of Huppenthal’s ruling last January that TUSD violated the law.

The TUSD board is short a member after the death of Judy Burns in October leaving four members who appear to be evenly divided over MAS.

Board members Michael Hicks and Mark Stegeman want the district to do away with MAS, or at least the way it’s currently configured, while members Adelijta Grijalva and Miguel Cuevas want to keep the program, which would require appealing Huppenthal’s ruling to Superior Court.

The tie-breaking vote will eventually be cast by University of Arizona economics professor Alexandre Sugiyama, who will attend his first board meeting tomorrow after being appointed Dec. 30 from a list of 54 applicants.

It’s not known where Sugiyama stands on the issue of Ethnic Studies but he’ll get a baptism-by-fire into the issue Tuesday when the board discusses it in a closed session.

His vote is crucial. At risk is 10 percent of the district’s state funding, which this year would have amounted to roughly $15 million. That’s a crippling loss of funds and not worth risking by pursuing an appeal of Huppenthal’s decision.

Morever, Ethnic Studies’ persistence is far from the most pressing issue in the district considering the meager amount of students in the MAS program.

The district has a shrinking enrollment, which stresses the district budget due to the state’s per student funding formula. It has too many poorly performing schools and students. It has an entrenched, dysfunctional administrative bureaucracy that hinders reform efforts. Its educational technology is outdated, some of it decrepit. The list is endless.

Both sides of the Ethnic Studies issue have dug in, fighting a zero sum game. That doesn’t serve the district’s interests or the students enrolled in MAS.

The best for all is to lose the battle – killing MAS as it currently exists – but win the war – creating an effective program that improves Latino student performance and lowers the dropout rate.

Sugiyama will be brutalized by partisans no matter which side he falls on, but he’ll start off serving the district well by putting an end to the Ethnic Studies battle and moving on to the next problem on the district’s long list.

http://tucsoncitizen.com/mark-evans/archives/664/

Tucson is a community in turmoil. It has been tied in knots for more than a year over the issue of how best to educate its children in a world of shrinking resources and high poverty.

Propagandists—both pro and con—have embroiled locals in continuous debate over the merits of the Mexican American Studies (MAS) program in the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD). Fanning the flames of hatred and hyperbole, supporters and detractors have distributed MAS facts and myths nationwide through blogs, newspapers, public appearances, radio broadcasts, e-mail blasts, and social media. Charges of racism and white privilege are hurled at those who ask for program evaluation data or information on course content; from the right, MAS instructors are called “bullies” and “thugs” who are indoctrinating children with Marxism and hatred.

On January 10, 2012, rather than face a $15 million fine, the TUSD Governing Board voted to not fight the state’s legal ruling against the MAS program. MAS was found to be in violation of state law banning any school curriculum that promotes resentment against a race or class of people, is designed primarily for one ethnic group, and advocates for ethnic solidarity, a law that was created by former Superintendent of Public Instruction and current state Attorney General Tom Horne specifically to bring down the MAS program.

Contrary to what you may read in other blog posts, in Save Ethnic Studies e-mail blasts or on facebook, this law did not ban Ethnic Studies and it didn’t eliminate Mexican American Studies in other school districts (like Sunnyside). The law (which I hope will be found to be unconstitutional) was finely targeted by Horne and the Arizona Legislature to take down the MAS program in TUSD.

http://tucsoncitizen.com/tucson-progressive/2012/01/16/should-tucson-school-board-fight-for-mexican-american-studies-or-let-it-die/

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Right, what do you think you would choose to do as a board if the Superintendent (and the co-writer of this law/instigator at this school) threatened to withold 14 million dollars if you wanted to keep the program.

ETA: I will start believing no wrong doing has gone on here if the Superintendent actively supports the recreation of this program. So far it seems pretty evident he is not supportive of that.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

Right, what do you think you would choose to do as a board if the Superintendent (and the co-writer of this law/instigator at this school) threatened to withold 14 million dollars if you wanted to keep the program.

ETA: I will start believing no wrong doing has gone on here if the Superintendent actively supports the recreation of this program. So far it seems pretty evident he is not supportive of that.

Maybe they decided it was time to cut their losses and move on. It sounds like there was not much oversight of these classes and that is how they got to the state that they were in. It also sounds like the classes weren't really doing a good job of serving the students it was designed for. There was nothing in the law that banned Ethnic studies, it is up to the school board to decide if they want to revamp the program and whether it is cost effective to do so.

Does TUSD need another Blue Ribbon Panel like the one that created MAS in 1999? My personal opinion is: YES. Pasting some Mexican American information and history into other classes won’t cut it. For several reasons fighting to keep the MAS status quo also doesn’t cut it:

1) The MAS reach was too small to make a significant impact on overall graduation rates (one of the original goals);

2) Non-Mexican Latinos, refugees, and other ethnic minorities are not being served by the current Ethnic Studies structure (ie, Mexican-American Studies, African American Studies, Native American Studies, and Pan-Asian Studies);

3) There is conflicting evaluation data.

4) Gender has been ignored in many MAS and TUSD academic achievement analyses. (Graduation rates and academic achievement among boys in the US has plummeted and continues to decline. This is a trend that will have serious negative consequences on the fabric on American society if left unaddressed.)

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"GloriaInTX" wrote:

Maybe they decided it was time to cut their losses and move on. It sounds like there was not much oversight of these classes and that is how they got to the state that they were in. It also sounds like the classes weren't really doing a good job of serving the students it was designed for. There was nothing in the law that banned Ethnic studies, it is up to the school board to decide if they want to revamp the program and whether it is cost effective to do so.

You say its up to the school board but the Arizona Superintendent of Public Instruction THREATENED to withhold money from them if they didn't terminate it.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

You say its up to the school board but the Arizona Superintendent of Public Instruction THREATENED to withhold money from them if they didn't terminate it.

Because they showed no plan on how they were going to bring it into compliance.

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"GloriaInTX" wrote:

Because they showed no plan on how they were going to bring it into compliance.

You are getting that specifically from where? I didn't see anything that said "He threatened to withhold money if they didn't terminate it because the refused to show how they would bring it into compliance" Not in the original article...nor what you have shown.

You have shown where it was supposedly an option, i have seen nothing that proves they got the opportunity to exercise that option.

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Also, to be clear, if you read carefully, the options are to terminate the program, or appeal the ruling (and risk 15 million dollars).

To rebuild it can only happen after its terminated.

So like i said, if he supports rebuilding the program....then thats fine with me. But from everything i've read about Huppenthal's involvement so far, i think that affects my views on how likely that is.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

You are getting that specifically from where? I didn't see anything that said "He threatened to withhold money if they didn't terminate it because the refused to show how they would bring it into compliance" Not in the original article...nor what you have shown.

You have shown where it was supposedly an option, i have seen nothing that proves they got the opportunity to exercise that option.

Just read the overview of the ruling. It states that TUSD had 60 days from the ruling to come into compliance. It nowhere stated that in order to do that the program had to be terminated. If they had come up with some other plan to come into compliance they would have had no choice but to consider it. But they didn't do that. They made a choice that it was easier to terminate the program.

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60 days? Where did you see that? I'm not sure which "overview of the ruling" you are referring to. I did a quick search for it in the materials you showed me, i didn't see it (doesn't 'mean i didn't miss it though, it could be there) Either way that doesn't sound like a lot of time to create a complete plan on how to rebuild an entire program.

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N/A

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"KimPossible" wrote:

60 days? Where did you see that? I'm not sure which "overview of the ruling" you are referring to. I did a quick search for it in the materials you showed me, i didn't see it (doesn't 'mean i didn't miss it though, it could be there) Either way that doesn't sound like a lot of time to create a complete plan on how to rebuild an entire program.

The judges ruling. Page 1 overview.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/76617576/ALJ-ruling-against-Ethnic-Studies-in-TUSD

That may be why they decided to scrap the program for now because they didn't have time to come up with a plan. It still doesn't mean they can't rebuild it.

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"GloriaInTX" wrote:

The judges ruling. Page 1 overview.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/76617576/ALJ-ruling-against-Ethnic-Studies-in-TUSD

That may be why they decided to scrap the program for now because they didn't have time to come up with a plan. It still doesn't mean they can't rebuild it.

I just read an article that said they might try to rebuild it as an ethnic studies program that encompasses more than just Mexican American. If they get to do that, i think thats good.

But i also would have been fine with another Mexican American program in its place.

http://www.azpm.org/education/story/2012/4/4/947-state-ethnic-studies-law-only-enforced-in-tusd-mexican-american-studies/ Listen to the Audio version of the article, it plays clearer than it reads.

I think that the fact that he states one would have to complain in order for action to be taken is a good point. Considering the social/cultural climate there? It most definitely means that such programs like this will be targeted and ones about African American Studies or Asian American studies will be overlooked.

ETA: I still didn't see where they had the option to produce a revamp plan within 60 days in that document. But i'm reading quickly and its awfully hurd to skim legal-eze and understand it fully.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

ETA: I still didn't see where they had the option to produce a revamp plan within 60 days in that document. But i'm reading quickly and its awfully hurd to skim legal-eze and understand it fully.

I looked at it again and I misread it -it says that they had more than 60 days (actually about 5 months) between the time that the superintendent determined the MAS program violated the law and the time that the judge heard the case.

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Yeah i'm still not reading it the same way you are. I don't see that as the time that has lapsed when they were supposed to be presenting a fix.

This was an appeal, which means they were saying they want to overturn the ruling and that would mean they thought the original 'charges' (i don't know the right term in this situation) were false.

This hearing was held solely to determine whether Superintendent JohnHuppenthal’s June 15, 2011 determination that the Mexican American Studies (“MAS”)program in the Tucson Unified School District No. 1 (“District”) violates Arizona RevisedStatutes (“A.R.S.”) ?? 15-112(A)(2) by promoting racial resentment, (A)(3) by beingdesigned primarily for one ethnic group (Mexican Americans),
1
or (A)(4) by advocatingethnic solidarity instead of treating pupils as individuals

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"KimPossible" wrote:

Yeah i'm still not reading it the same way you are. I don't see that as the time that has lapsed when they were supposed to be presenting a fix.

This was an appeal, which means they were saying they want to overturn the ruling and that would mean they thought the original 'charges' (i don't know the right term in this situation) were false.

The ruling I linked was the original ruling in the case. Then they appealed to have the MAS studies reinstated by saying that it conficted with a segregation lawsuit from the 1970s, which is what the OP is about. This was rejected as judge David Bury ruled that doing away with these courses didn't segregate students. They didn't actually appeal the original decision.

http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/2012/3/6/judge_denies_request_to_reinstate_mexicanamerican.htm

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Okay, my point is there was no scenario that i see where they were given the option to put forth a proposal on how to fix the program without termination first. If they are appealing, they would fix nothing, because an appeal means that they think the ruling is wrong.

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"KimPossible" wrote:

Okay, my point is there was no scenario that i see where they were given the option to put forth a proposal on how to fix the program without termination first. If they are appealing, they would fix nothing, because an appeal means that they think the ruling is wrong.

Again... the ruling did not state they had to terminate the program. It only stated it had to comply with the law or lose funding. It was up to the school district to decide how to do that. There is nothing in the ruling that states that they couldn't have come up with a plan to fix the program. They decided it was better to terminate the program than risk losing funding. That was the school board decision. I'm sure they figured that there was no way they could come up with a plan in time to get into compliance before losing funding, and they were probably right. There is nothing to say that they can't rebuild the program as long as it is in compliance with the law.

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"GloriaInTX" wrote:

Again... the ruling did not state they had to terminate the program. It only stated it had to comply with the law or lose funding. It was up to the school district to decide how to do that. There is nothing in the ruling that states that they couldn't have come up with a plan to fix the program. They decided it was better to terminate the program than risk losing funding. That was the school board decision. I'm sure they figured that there was no way they could come up with a plan in time to get into compliance before losing funding, and they were probably right. There is nothing to say that they can't rebuild the program as long as it is in compliance with the law.

I disagree with your interpretation. Only thing i agree is that there is nothing that says they can't rebuild it...NOW that the original program has been terminated.

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I don't know how you can give an honest and accurate account of the Mexican American experience and history without talking about racism, tbh. It may hurt some feelings, but I just don't see how you can ignore or gloss over that part just to not make white people uncomfortable. It's kind of like talking about slavery (although slavery is obviously a much more extreme example) while trying to make the slave owners seem like kindly benefactors or something, just so no one gets their feelings hurt. It would not be an accurate depiction.

Are they going to stop teaching about slavery and the Jim Crow laws and the civil rights movement as well? Because those topics could be seen as divisive and portray white Americans in a less than flattering light.