Grand Canyon bottled water ban

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boilermaker's picture
Joined: 08/21/02
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Grand Canyon bottled water ban

http://news.yahoo.com/grand-canyon-ban-bottled-water-sales-175237955.html

PHOENIX, Arizona (Reuters) - Officials at the Grand Canyon will soon ban the sale of bottled water in response to concerns that empty plastic bottles scattered around the park were spoiling views of the natural wonder.

The National Park Service has approved a plan that will eliminate the sale of bottled water within 30 days, after nearly $290,000 was spent to install 10 water stations inside the park. Visitors can use the stations to refill their own water bottles, which they can tote in from the outside.

Park concessionaires, who can still sell other bottled beverages, chipped in with another three water stations.

"Our parks should set the standard for resource protection and sustainability," John Wessels, the park service's intermountain region director, said in a statement this week.

Wessels added he expects the new policy to have minimal impact on visitors who flock to the crimson-hued canyon in northern Arizona.

Some 4.5 million tourists visit the Grand Canyon each year, and officials worry about litter found on the rim and inner canyon spoiling the park and marring its views. They estimate the disposable bottles account for 20 percent of the park's waste and 30 percent of its recyclables.

Similar bans are in effect at Zion and Hawaii Volcanoes national parks.

The National Park Service delayed applying the ban in late 2010 after what the Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility charged was pressure by Coca-Cola Co. The company and park officials have denied the claim.

Jeff Ruch, the group's executive director, said he was pleased with the decision to apply the ban, saying it "clearly shows intense public scrutiny forced this U-turn."

Susan Stribling, a spokeswoman for Coca-Cola, said the company does not favor such bans but will continue to work to "find a solution that is in the best interest of the parks and the public."

Stribling said the company prefers solutions such as creating more recycling programs as was done at the National Mall in Washington.

(Editing by Daniel Trotta and Xavier Briand)

Good solution? Or wrong strategy?

Joined: 05/31/06
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I think that its awesome! Then again, I have very extreme views re: national parks and especially wilderness areas. Think Edward Abbey in Desert Solitaire.

FLSunshineMom's picture
Joined: 06/07/06
Posts: 3859

I think it's a good thing, too. Now what to do about all the "other" bottled beverages, which have not been banned from being sold by the park concessionaires.

Joined: 12/10/05
Posts: 1681

I think it's great! I hate plastic water bottles.

KimPossible's picture
Joined: 05/24/06
Posts: 3312

What would be the argument against the strategy? I can't even think of one aside from the fact that it hurts the bottled water business...which doesn't concern me too much.

ClairesMommy's picture
Joined: 08/15/06
Posts: 2299

ITA with everybody. It's a great idea! I love the Brita ad with the chick wading through the empty water bottles to get to the fridge after her run. Coca-Cola and the like.....wah wah wah. They can go pound salt.

Spacers's picture
Joined: 12/29/03
Posts: 4100

I personally think bottled water should be banned everywhere, with the exception of larger containers for emergency supplies or picnics. There is no reason except sheer laziness to buy & use bottled water. Needless to say, I totally support this one.

Starryblue702's picture
Joined: 04/06/11
Posts: 5454

I'm totally fine with it. I think it's sad that they had to even make a ban like this and people were literally leaving their garbage all over that natural wonder. I'm glad that you posted this though, as I'm a concierge here in Las Vegas and book many trips to the Grand Canyon for my guests! I'll be telling them to make sure they take their own water if they're going to want to drink it!

"Spacers" wrote:

I personally think bottled water should be banned everywhere, with the exception of larger containers for emergency supplies or picnics. There is no reason except sheer laziness to buy & use bottled water. Needless to say, I totally support this one.

You haven't tasted the water here in Las Vegas then! It's the worst of anywhere that I've ever visited or lived (I've lived in FL, TN, VA, CA, NC, SC). There's no way that I could sit and drink a glass of it. Our water is cloudy and disgusting. I noticed a leak in my bathroom sink yesterday (I have to admit, we have his and hers sinks, but we both use the one closet to the bathroom door for some reason and not the other one, so the water never is turned on in the other sink) and it had been there was an accumulation of some sort of clear goop at the mouth of the faucet that was from our tap water dripping continuously, it was disgusting. I buy bottled water every week for myself and my family.

ClairesMommy's picture
Joined: 08/15/06
Posts: 2299

"Starryblue702" wrote:

You haven't tasted the water here in Las Vegas then! It's the worst of anywhere that I've ever visited or lived (I've lived in FL, TN, VA, CA, NC, SC). There's no way that I could sit and drink a glass of it. Our water is cloudy and disgusting. I noticed a leak in my bathroom sink yesterday (I have to admit, we have his and hers sinks, but we both use the one closet to the bathroom door for some reason and not the other one, so the water never is turned on in the other sink) and it had been there was an accumulation of some sort of clear goop at the mouth of the faucet that was from our tap water dripping continuously, it was disgusting. I buy bottled water every week for myself and my family.

Like, in a water cooler, right? Or do you buy individual bottles? In places where the water is gross I totally get the need for a water cooler.

Starryblue702's picture
Joined: 04/06/11
Posts: 5454

"Claire'sMommy" wrote:

Like, in a water cooler, right? Or do you buy individual bottles? In places where the water is gross I totally get the need for a water cooler.

No, I buy Walmart's brand of bottles. I did the coolers for a while but with the size of my family it's cheaper for me to buy bottles than it is to have the coolers. If and when my pay gets back to what it was I would love to go back to the delivery system that I had, I just can't afford to at this time.

Joined: 05/31/06
Posts: 4780

Brittas are cheap and environmentally friendly.

Spacers ~ why picnics? I'm curious how a picnic is different than any other public water drinking event.

ClairesMommy's picture
Joined: 08/15/06
Posts: 2299

We camp in the winter, but our trailer (oh yes, boooo to the house on wheels, I know ;)) gets winterized with antifreeze through the plumbing so we have to bring the water paks from home - those huge blue containers. A couple will do, most times, but I usually do bring a couple large bottles of water, as backup because I'm a paranoid freak.

Spacers's picture
Joined: 12/29/03
Posts: 4100

"Potter75" wrote:

Brittas are cheap and environmentally friendly.

Spacers ~ why picnics? I'm curious how a picnic is different than any other public water drinking event.

Ditto on the Brita. We used them when we lived in the Central Valley, horrible water, we would just keep filtering it through a Brita & dumping it into a large dispenser that sat on the counter. Very easy & convenient, and not very expensive, and soooooo much better on the environment than a ton of plastic bottles.

My thinking on the picnics may be skewed by city living. Pretty much no one I know has a big dispenser lying around their house to be able to fill & take to the park, so when anyone hosts a picnic, they pick up a big jug of water. Even if you're carrying a refillable bottle for yourself, if you finish it, there might not be a spigot nearby. And if there is a spigot, it probably has dog slobber all over it unless it's one of the dog-friendly ones.

boilermaker's picture
Joined: 08/21/02
Posts: 1984

I think everyone should watch the documentary "Tapped", I don't think there are many situations that call for buying bottled water. Emergencies, disasters? Okay. Other than that, you'll have a hard time convincing me of a need for bottled water.

Maybe it is bc I work with civil and environmental engineers, but no matter how you perceive the "taste" of your tap water in the US, I assure you, you are safer drinking that than the vast majority of bottled water (from a health standpoint.) Municipal supplies in the US are highly monitored and super safe. Perhaps if you draw from a well you could convince me. Perhaps.

Tis the norm at our house to nearly always have a Camelbak bottle of water for each person with us at all times. We fill up all over the place (for free!) My kids have their own little bottles and know to carry and refill them....

I'm all for this Grand Canyon water ban. Just wish we could spread the ban to other places, too!

wlillie's picture
Joined: 09/17/07
Posts: 1796

We get a boil water notice at least montly-either at work or at home. My best friend got a letter in the mail telling them that the water was now safe to drink but never received anything lettting them know there was a chemical spill from one of the nearby oil refineries and they shouldn't drink the water at all; they read about it in the newspaper because some people got seriously ill.

We still use a filtered water bottle, but if I'm out and about without a filter, I'm *not* drinking the tap water or having my child drink it. The water isn't just disgusting here, it is often unsafe and they don't/can't tell you immediately when it's not. If they banned bottled water nationwide, they'd be responsible for providing safe clean water all of the time and that's just something I don't trust the local or federal government to do.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/us/17water.html

Only 91 contaminants are regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act, yet more than 60,000 chemicals are used within the United States, according to Environmental Protection Agency estimates.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/08/business/energy-environment/08water.html?adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1328900969-lxY0YIAKYOuroXt1AfVIPg

But since 2004, the water provided to more than 49 million people has contained illegal concentrations of chemicals like arsenic or radioactive substances like uranium, as well as dangerous bacteria often found in sewage.

http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/translating-uncle-sam/stories/how-polluted-is-us-drinking-water
Interesting map

Starryblue702's picture
Joined: 04/06/11
Posts: 5454

"Potter75" wrote:

Brittas are cheap and environmentally friendly.

How much clean water can you get before you have to change the filter? Just curious as I'd never thought of using this before...

ClairesMommy's picture
Joined: 08/15/06
Posts: 2299

What I love about our water is that it's straight from the mountains and there are plenty of minerals in it that are actually good for you. I would drink it straight from the tap without filtering it through the Brita, but DH doesn't like the slightly hard taste. When we drive on vacation or just west an hour or so you always see people filling up their canteens from little mountain waterfalls by the roadside. We are lucky to have such good drinking water. Now, what it does to my dishes and laundry is a different matter....

ClairesMommy's picture
Joined: 08/15/06
Posts: 2299

"wlillie" wrote:

We still use a filtered water bottle, but if I'm out and about without a filter, I'm *not* drinking the tap water or having my child drink it. The water isn't just disgusting here, it is often unsafe and they don't/can't tell you immediately when it's not. If they banned bottled water nationwide, they'd be responsible for providing safe clean water all of the time and that's just something I don't trust the local or federal government to do.

Shockingly enough, clean water was only declared a human right by the UN in 2010. :eek:

Spacers's picture
Joined: 12/29/03
Posts: 4100

"Starryblue702" wrote:

How much clean water can you get before you have to change the filter? Just curious as I'd never thought of using this before...

The faucet filtration system is good for 100 gallons, the pitcher filtration is good for 40 gallons. The general rule of thumb for drinking & cooking is a gallon a day, per person, so for your family of five the faucet filter would last about three weeks. Get into the habit of filling watering cans, pet dishes, etc. from the bathtub to avoid using up the filter for things that don't care. Smile The faucet filter system costs about $30; Brita sells replacement filters in a 2-pack for $30 but they can usually be found much cheaper in larger quanities at places like Costco & Bed/Bath/Beyond.

ETA: I know you're a family of six, but I don't think a BF newborn will be using as much as the rest of you. Smile

boilermaker's picture
Joined: 08/21/02
Posts: 1984

"wlillie" wrote:

We get a boil water notice at least montly-either at work or at home. My best friend got a letter in the mail telling them that the water was now safe to drink but never received anything lettting them know there was a chemical spill from one of the nearby oil refineries and they shouldn't drink the water at all; they read about it in the newspaper because some people got seriously ill.

We still use a filtered water bottle, but if I'm out and about without a filter, I'm *not* drinking the tap water or having my child drink it. The water isn't just disgusting here, it is often unsafe and they don't/can't tell you immediately when it's not. If they banned bottled water nationwide, they'd be responsible for providing safe clean water all of the time and that's just something I don't trust the local or federal government to do.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/us/17water.html Below is taken from the website....

Only 91 contaminants are regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act, yet more than 60,000 chemicals are used within the United States, according to Environmental Protection Agency estimates.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/08/business/energy-environment/08water.html?adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1328900969-lxY0YIAKYOuroXt1AfVIPg

But since 2004, the water provided to more than 49 million people has contained illegal concentrations of chemicals like arsenic or radioactive substances like uranium, as well as dangerous bacteria often found in sewage.

http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/translating-uncle-sam/stories/how-polluted-is-us-drinking-water
Interesting map

But you do realize that the water in bottled water is NOT as regulated as tap water, right? They are even LESS strict about what is permitted in bottled water vs. tap water. So all of those contaminants that you are worried about, are often just as present or even more common in bottled waters.

http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/bw/exesum.asp

City tap water can have no confirmed E. coli or fecal coliform bacteria (bacteria that are indications of possible contamination by fecal matter). FDA bottled water rules include no such prohibition (a certain amount of any type of coliform bacteria is allowed in bottled water).

City tap water from surface water must be filtered and disinfected (or the water system must adopt well-defined protective measures for the source water it uses, such as control of potentially polluting activities that may affect the stream involved). In contrast, there are no federal filtration or disinfection requirements for bottled water -- the only source-water protection, filtration, or disinfection provisions for bottled water are completely delegated to state discretion, and many states have adopted no such meaningful programs.

Bottled water plants must test for coliform bacteria just once a week; big-city tap water must be tested 100 or more times a month.

Repeated high levels of bacteria (i.e., "heterotrophic-plate-count" bacteria) in tap water combined with a lack of disinfectant can trigger a violation for cities -- but not for water bottlers.

Most cities using surface water have had to test for Cryptosporidium or Giardia, two common water pathogens that can cause diarrhea and other intestinal problems (or more serious problems in vulnerable people), yet bottled water companies don't have to do this.

City tap water must meet standards for certain important toxic or cancer-causing chemicals such as phthalate (a chemical that can leach from plastic, including plastic bottles); some in the industry persuaded FDA to exempt bottled water from regulations regarding these chemicals.

Any violation of tap-water standards is grounds for enforcement -- but bottled water in violation of standards can still be sold if it is labeled as "containing excessive chemicals" or "excessive bacteria" (unless FDA finds it "adulterated," a term not specifically defined).

Cities generally must test at least once a quarter for many chemical contaminants. Water bottlers generally must test only annually.

Cities must have their water tested by government-certified labs; such certified testing is not required for bottlers.

Tap water test results and notices of violations must be reported to state or federal officials. There is no mandatory reporting for water bottlers.

City water system operators must be certified and trained to ensure that they know how to safely treat and deliver water -- not so for bottlers.

City water systems must issue annual "right-to-know" reports telling consumers what is in their water; as detailed in this report, bottlers successfully killed such a requirement for bottled water.

Joined: 12/10/05
Posts: 1681

I'm fortunate to live in an area with some of the best water in the country (won awards and everything). It comes from an aquafer (underground river) and is delicious. Any bottled water is absolute garbage by comparison. We drink it straight from the tap. If I ever moved away, I would probably have to install some crazy expensive water filtration system to get it up to par Smile

Starryblue702's picture
Joined: 04/06/11
Posts: 5454

"Spacers" wrote:

The faucet filtration system is good for 100 gallons, the pitcher filtration is good for 40 gallons. The general rule of thumb for drinking & cooking is a gallon a day, per person, so for your family of five the faucet filter would last about three weeks. Get into the habit of filling watering cans, pet dishes, etc. from the bathtub to avoid using up the filter for things that don't care. Smile The faucet filter system costs about $30; Brita sells replacement filters in a 2-pack for $30 but they can usually be found much cheaper in larger quanities at places like Costco & Bed/Bath/Beyond.

ETA: I know you're a family of six, but I don't think a BF newborn will be using as much as the rest of you. Smile

Thanks for the info! It's still a lot more than I pay for bottled water (I spend about $10 per month, I buy a 24 pack every week that costs $2.50) but it's definitely better not to waste the bottles. And I agree with my baby Trystan... I'm just used to saying family of six now lol...

Spacers's picture
Joined: 12/29/03
Posts: 4100

"Starryblue702" wrote:

Thanks for the info! It's still a lot more than I pay for bottled water (I spend about $10 per month, I buy a 24 pack every week that costs $2.50) but it's definitely better not to waste the bottles. And I agree with my baby Trystan... I'm just used to saying family of six now lol...

The Brita filter is good for up to four months. It sounds like you only use bottled water for drinking, not cooking, so it would last a lot longer & might be a comparable cost. And I hope you're at least recycling those bottles! Did you know that for every bottle that is produced, it takes about three bottles' worth of water.

Joined: 05/31/06
Posts: 4780

How does a 24 pack work with a family of 5 for a week if that is all of your drinking water? If my math is right that means every person gets .68 of a bottle of water a day to drink. Are they gallon bottles or something?

mom3girls's picture
Joined: 01/09/07
Posts: 1535

If all bottled water was banned what would people do when they were traveling and didnt want to drink water out of a public water system? We have really great water here right out of the tap, but when we are visiting family in So. Cal I bring tons of bottles of water. Most of our family has filters, but some dont and I wont refill our own personal bottles out of the taps at places like Disney or Sea World, GROSS

Joined: 12/10/05
Posts: 1681

"mom3girls" wrote:

If all bottled water was banned what would people do when they were traveling and didnt want to drink water out of a public water system? We have really great water here right out of the tap, but when we are visiting family in So. Cal I bring tons of bottles of water. Most of our family has filters, but some dont and I wont refill our own personal bottles out of the taps at places like Disney or Sea World, GROSS

If people only drank bottled water at places like Disneyland or Sea World, I don't think there would be an issue with bottled water at all.

What did people do before bottled water? It seems like a pretty new thing. It certainly wasn't around when I was a kid. Did people every where drink sludge water? Or has water quality deteriorated? Or are we just too picky?

Starryblue702's picture
Joined: 04/06/11
Posts: 5454

"Potter75" wrote:

How does a 24 pack work with a family of 5 for a week if that is all of your drinking water? If my math is right that means every person gets .68 of a bottle of water a day to drink. Are they gallon bottles or something?

It's mostly DH and I drinking it. I do send a bottle to school with my boys each day as well so that they have something to drink in their classroom. I have a huge Dasani bottle that I fill up here at work every day with the water that my resort provides, so that saves me from having to bring my own water to work. DH also works at a resort where water is provided, so he drinks that while he's there. I just use the tap to cook with... I'd rather have the bottled water to drink and at least we can't taste it in the food! We make it work... as I said we're a little cash poor these days! :rolleyes: Sometimes we do get lucky and Walmart will have a 32 pack for just one more dollar!!

boilermaker's picture
Joined: 08/21/02
Posts: 1984

"mom3girls" wrote:

If all bottled water was banned what would people do when they were traveling and didnt want to drink water out of a public water system? We have really great water here right out of the tap, but when we are visiting family in So. Cal I bring tons of bottles of water. Most of our family has filters, but some dont and I wont refill our own personal bottles out of the taps at places like Disney or Sea World, GROSS

I guess I'm gross then. Because that is exactly what we do. At the zoo, at amusement parks, at outdoor parks. We take our Camelbaks and fill up. What are you afraid of from those taps?

Maybe I am just really gross. I even sit down on public toilet seats.I don't know how I've survived all of these years..... Wink

boilermaker's picture
Joined: 08/21/02
Posts: 1984

****
From: http://www.ewg.org/reports/BottledWater/Bottled-Water-Quality-Investigation

The bottled water industry promotes an image of purity, but comprehensive testing by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) reveals a surprising array of chemical contaminants in every bottled water brand analyzed, including toxic byproducts of chlorination in Walmart’s Sam’s Choice and Giant Supermarket's Acadia brands, at levels no different than routinely found in tap water. Several Sam's Choice samples purchased in California exceeded legal limits for bottled water contaminants in that state. Cancer-causing contaminants in bottled water purchased in 5 states (North Carolina, California, Virginia, Delaware and Maryland) and the District of Columbia substantially exceeded the voluntary standards established by the bottled water industry.

Unlike tap water, where consumers are provided with test results every year, the bottled water industry is not required to disclose the results of any contaminant testing that it conducts. Instead, the industry hides behind the claim that bottled water is held to the same safety standards as tap water. But with promotional campaigns saturated with images of mountain springs, and prices 1,900 times the price of tap water, consumers are clearly led to believe that they are buying a product that has been purified to a level beyond the water that comes out of the garden hose.

To the contrary, our tests strongly indicate that the purity of bottled water cannot be trusted. Given the industry's refusal to make available data to support their claims of superiority, consumer confidence in the purity of bottled water is simply not justified. ****

It seems to me that people don't understand that bottled water **IS** tap water-- just from a different source. Bottled, not as regulated, and sold for more money.

It generally is NOT cleaner or safer than tap water...bc it IS tap water.

wlillie's picture
Joined: 09/17/07
Posts: 1796

http://www.ewg.org/bottled-water-2011-search

We'll be switching to Nestle for our hurricane stockpile, but since we live in an area with as many boil notices as we have, I will never ever drink unfiltered tap water. I wouldn't hesitate if I lived in Colorado or another state with a low instance of contamination, but unless they actually start following the law, it doesn't really matter which one is more regulated. Give me a company that depends on their public image over an entity that really *doesn't* have any consequences for breaking the law any day to provide me with the cleanest water. I'd rather deal with a recall of Dasani than get that letter saying the water is safe to drink after finding out it hadn't been for hours/days/weeks/months or in some cases years.

More than 20 percent of the nation?s water treatment systems have violated key provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act over the last five years, according to a New York Times analysis of federal data.

The water system in Ramsey, N.J., has illegal concentrations of arsenic and the solvent tetrachloroethylene, both linked to cancer.

That law requires communities to deliver safe tap water to local residents. But since 2004, the water provided to more than 49 million people has contained illegal concentrations of chemicals like arsenic or radioactive substances like uranium, as well as dangerous bacteria often found in sewage.

Regulators were informed of each of those violations as they occurred. But regulatory records show that fewer than 6 percent of the water systems that broke the law were ever fined or punished by state or federal officials, including those at the Environmental Protection Agency, which has ultimate responsibility for enforcing standards.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/08/business/energy-environment/08water.html?adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1328900969-lxY0YIAKYOuroXt1AfVIPg

And independent studies in such journals as Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; Environmental Health Perspectives; American Journal of Public Health; and Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, as well as reports published by the National Academy of Sciences, suggest that millions of Americans become sick each year from drinking contaminated water, with maladies from upset stomachs to cancer and birth defects.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/us/17water.html

ClairesMommy's picture
Joined: 08/15/06
Posts: 2299

If anyone's grossed out by fountains and other public water supplies Brita makes travel water bottles with the filter built right in. Nifty idea esp if you go through the water you bring from home really fast.

wlillie's picture
Joined: 09/17/07
Posts: 1796

Rubbermaid, Bopple, Cleantek, EcoFlo and Camelback do too. So far I've gotten 3 months of water for less than $15 and I drink a lot of water. The rubbermaid was fantastic until I put it in the dishwasher, so be warned the plastic ones leak if they arne't washed by hand.

Starryblue702's picture
Joined: 04/06/11
Posts: 5454

"boilermaker" wrote:

I guess I'm gross then. Because that is exactly what we do. At the zoo, at amusement parks, at outdoor parks. We take our Camelbaks and fill up. What are you afraid of from those taps?

Maybe I am just really gross. I even sit down on public toilet seats.I don't know how I've survived all of these years..... Wink

Yep, this is me too! No way in h*ll I'm paying $3.00 for a bottled water from one of those amusement parks! Muliply that by my family of six (five that drink water , excluding the newborn lol) needing water all day long you can easily spend over $50 on water for the day. We take our own bottles and fill them up at the tap when we go to Disneyland. Same thing when DH and I go to the Comic-Con in San Diego every year for vacation... fill up our own bottles.

GloriaInTX's picture
Joined: 07/29/08
Posts: 4116

"Starryblue702" wrote:

Yep, this is me too! No way in h*ll I'm paying $3.00 for a bottled water from one of those amusement parks! Muliply that by my family of six (five that drink water , excluding the newborn lol) needing water all day long you can easily spend over $50 on water for the day. We take our own bottles and fill them up at the tap when we go to Disneyland. Same thing when DH and I go to the Comic-Con in San Diego every year for vacation... fill up our own bottles.

It is not widely known and I don't know if other amusement parks do this, but at Six Flags you can go to any concession stand and they will give you ice water for free if you ask for it. If you have a cup or something they will fill it for you, otherwise they will give you a cheap plastic dixie type cup of water. My sons and their friends do this all the time because when they are running ride to ride they don't want to have to keep up with one of the sovenier cups or something. They don't really advertise the fact because that way they can't sell as much bottled water. It wouldn't suprise me if other amusement parks did the same thing because they don't want to be sued if someone has heat stroke or something due to dehydration.